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Rasmus Nyerup's quote reminds us of the tremendous scientific advances which have taken place in the 20th century.

In the laboratory, the types of mineral grains (crystals) sometimes allow the tephra to be identified and matched to a source volcano.

These values must be considered as conservative estimates due to the nature of tephra capture and preservation in the sedimentary record.

Several volcanic ash beds or tuffs are known to be present in western and central North Dakota.

In the landscape, colour, thickness and position of the tephra in the sequence are important, and sometimes the type of pumice is useful in identifying it.

For example, pumice from the Taupō eruption (about 200 AD) is usually cream-coloured and easy to crush, whereas pumice from the Kaharoa eruption (about 1314 AD) is white and hard to crush.

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